Ochs M, Nyengaard JR, Jung A, Knudsen L, Voigt M, Wahlers T, Richter J, Gundersen HJ.

Anatomy, Division of Electron Microscopy, University of Gottingen, Gottingen, Germany.

The number of alveoli is a key structural determinant of lung architecture. A design-based stereological approach was used for the direct and unbiased estimation of alveolar number in the human lung.

The principle is based on two-dimensional topology in three-dimensional space and is free of assumptions on the shape, size or spatial orientation of alveoli. Alveolar number is estimated by counting their openings at the level of the free septal edges, where they form a two-dimensional network.

Mathematically, the Euler number of this network is estimated using physical dissectors at a light microscopic level. In six adult human lungs, the mean alveolar number was 480 million (range: 274 to 790 million; CV: 37%). Alveolar number was closely related to total lung volume with larger lungs having considerably more alveoli. The mean size of a single alveolus was rather constant with 4.2x10(6) micro m(3) (range: 3.3 to 4.8x10(6) micro m(3); CV: 10%), irrespective of the lung size.

One mm(3) lung parenchyma would then contain around 170 alveoli. The method proved to be very efficient and easy to apply in practice. Future applications will show this approach to be an important addition to design-based stereological methods for the quantitative analysis of lung structure.

PMID: 14512270 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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When you enlarge the lungs via self-help or aided by others you increase the number of alveoli. This increases the oxygen transfer capability along with a host of health benefits..

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by Prestonsow

Research linking Ashkenazi Jews and breast cancer genes beset

Genetic research over the last decade has linked Ashkenazi Jewish ethnicity to an increased risk for hereditary breast cancer, So much so that you gene mutations have become known as "Jewish ancestral mutations, But a new study released in the November 2006 issue of the American Journal of Public Health challenges this population based approach, Warning that disparities in access to care and other unintended problems for specific ethic groups can result, And may have formerly occurred.

the analysis, Conducted by Columbia University College of Physicians Surgeons analysis, Notes that while three recognized breast cancers mutations are present in two three percent of the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Similar prevalence studies have not been carried out in other ethnic groups. expertise, The study finds that research linking the breast cancer mutations with Ashkenazi Jews has been beset by girls in spanish methodological issues that cast doubt on the use of ethnicity as the basis for genetic research on disease. "Focusing genetic studies on a specific ethnic group may confer downside to that group and others. This finding in Ashkenazi Jews raises the risk of stigmatization and insurance or job elegance. For other folks, It introduces a gap in access to testing and treatment,

The report cites might be able to disparities that have occurred. for instance, Ashkenazi Jewish women entry an inexpensive test that detects the mutations at a cost of $415 compared with $2,975 for the test for non Ashkenazi Jewish women without known family strains. Other studies have found that Ashkenazi Jewish women with family histories of cancer of the breast are more than twice as likely as other women at similar risk to undergo testing for suspect genes.

medical professional. The interviews revealed how geneticists came to substitute ethnicity for genealogy as the most relevant indicator of risk.

Serendipity played a huge role. research workers had previously found a high prevalence of a mutation causing Tay Sachs disease in Ashkenazi Jews. at intervals 20 years, One million Jews around the world had been tested for the Tay Sachs mutation, And scientific institutions had created large repositories of genetic samples that could then be screened for other mutations including those attached to breast cancer but only in Ashkenazi Jews. Most scientists relied on study participants’ self i. d,identity. Ashkenazi Jews are originated from Jews who lived in central and Eastern Europe, But a complex who of migrations, And multiple cultural and christian meanings of Ashkenazi, Makes self i. d,identity problematic.

The study also illuminates how geneticists viewed Jewish history to support the theory of Ashkenazi genetic uniqueness. This design views the historic Ashkenazi Jewish population as isolated, And as having been subject to extreme expansions and contractions. It attributes Ashkenazi Jewish genetic novel idea to "organizer effects, the thought that genetic mutations can take hold and spread within small, Geographically isolated communities, perhaps group living alone on an island.

Although Ashkenazi Jews beautiful spanish women were never geographically remote, Rothman declared "Researchers made persecution the pogroms and massacres in Jewish history roughly the same as geographic isolation,

The study noted that a small number of recent genetic surveys including among Spanish, german, nederlander, Polish and Hispanic women have shown a high presence of the so called “Ancestral Jewish versions” In non Ashkenazi and non judaism groups. as an example, A large study of Spanish women with breast cancer reported that one of the three mutations accounted for 16.7 percent of all strains in the gene. Rothman stated.

Columbia University clinic provides international leadership in pre clinical and clinical research, In health and medical sciences education, And in strong care. The hospital trains future leaders and includes the dedicated work of many physicians, researchers, nurse practitioners, dental practitioners, And public health professionals at the College of Physicians Surgeons, the school of Dental Medicine, the faculty of Nursing, The mailman School of Public Health, The biomedical section of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, And allied research centers and colleges.